In 2021, the wind sector has meant 0.49% of GDP in Spain, has generated employment for more than 32,000 professionals, has allowed companies to export more than 2,000 million euros and saved 2,713 million euros in the importation of fossil fuels. Thanks to the wind, the emission to the atmosphere of 31.7 million tons of CO2 was avoided.
Spain is a worldwide power reference installed, wind industry and innovation, maintaining 100% of the value chain, despite the post-covid recovery situation of the year 2021 and the tension in energy markets. The rhythm of wind power installation in 2021 (845 MW) is less than the two preceding years and is not adequate to meet the path of the PNIEC, being the annual installation objective for the wind of 2.2 of GW. We are well below the necessary rhythm to meet the Spanish and European objectives.
The macroeconomic study of the impact of the wind sector in Spain, prepared by the Deloitte consulting firm for the Wind Business Association (AEE), analyzes in detail the benefits that the wind industry supposes for the Spanish economy and society.
AEE’s macroeconomic study examines the impact that the wind industry has on the Spanish economy, including the effect on the gross domestic product, employment, the balance of payments (in particular the impact on exports), tax collection, as well as The contribution to mitigate the energy dependence of third countries and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Balance and advance in the increase in wind in the system
2021 has been a relevant year for wind in Spain with an increase in power of 845 MW. As of December 31, 2021, Spain had a total 28,140 MW windings installed, consolidating wind as the first technology of the electric mix and thus constituting a historical milestone in our country.
In terms of electricity generation in 2021, the wind generation was 60,485 GWh, which represents a 24% demand coverage (system for contribution to the system). Wind energy was the first technology in the energy mix.
The main indicators of the wind sector in Spain
In 2021, the wind generation was 60,485 GWh, which represents a 24%demand coverage. In this way, wind energy was the first technology in the energy mix. We have gone from 8% in 2005 to 24% in the last year in the coverage of the demand with wind. The total contribution of the wind sector to GDP, adding direct and indirect, reached € 5,539 million. Of them € 3,951 million correspond to direct GDP, and the remaining € 1,588 million are indirect GDP. In total, it represents 0.49% of Spain's GDP in 2021 (in 2020 the contribution to GDP was 0.30%, increasing considerably this year). The sector uses 32,087 people (16,814 direct jobs and 15,273 indirect jobs). The increase in employment compared to the previous year is 15%. In 2021, the export activity exceeded € 2,000 million. The annual exports figure has increased with respect to that of 2020. In 2021, wind energy saved the import of 11.6 million TEP, valued at € 2,713.5 million. In terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in 2021 the atmosphere of 31.7 million tons of CO2 was avoided. Wind generation has meant a benefit for Spanish consumers. For a consumer with AT1 rate and a consumption of 1,500 MWh per year, savings over 2021 has been € 9,530. The most benefited from the wind reducing effect are industrial consumers, which have had a saving of € 18.42/MWh.
Wind in the different autonomous communities
Winding parks in Spain are located in practically all autonomous communities. In Spain there are 8,135 municipalities. Winding parks are present in 766, 9% of all municipalities, which translates into that 11% of the Spanish population coexists with wind activity and other activities such as agriculture, livestock, fishing or tourism.
It can be noted that the provinces in which a greater amount of population is located in a municipality with wind power are Zaragoza and Albacete (with 81%), followed by Valladolid (with 64%), Palencia (with 62%) , and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (with 49%). Winding farms tend to be located in municipalities in which the population is lower (emptied Spain), contributing to set population, since they generate economic activity and employment. Of the 52 Spanish provinces, discarding the 7 in which there is no wind presence, it is observed that the average net income per person is greater if there are wind farms in 24 Spanish provinces.
The provinces with the greatest wind presence are Lugo (51%of the municipalities have wind presence), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (47%) and La Coruña (46%). Wind power is concentrated in 5 autonomous communities in which 79% of the current power is installed. The CCAA ranking for the largest number of wind facilities is as follows:
Castilla León (21.7%) Galicia (14.5%) Aragon (14%) Andalusia (13%) Castilla La Mancha (12.1%)
The distribution of the generation by Autonomous Community is quite similar to that of wind power, highlighting 5 autonomous communities in ranking for its generation with wind:
Castilla y León (13,255 GWh, 21.9%) Aragon (10,253 GWh, 16.9%) Galicia (9,559 GWh, 15.8%) Castilla-La Mancha (7,681 GWh, 12.7%) Andalusia (7,230 GWh, 12%)
With respect to the more than 250 wind industrial centers are distributed throughout the country.
Urgent challenges of the wind sector to continue being a key technology in Spain
Wind installation rhythm. It is necessary to maintain an adequate rhythm of installation of wind farms to fulfill the PNIEC in 2030. For this it is essential of PNIEC advance and the attraction of investments in the country.
Deads and milestones wind projects. The Government, in December 2021, approved an additional 9 months extension for obtaining the day. This period has not been sufficient and, although public and miteco administrations have made advances and efforts during these months, the sector meets more than 19 GW of wind power in process at risk of expiring in January 2023, which would aggravate the current industry situation.
In the event that arrived on January 25 there is still a considerable number of projects that have not yet had an answer, it is important You can lose access permit. At that point, the wind sector requests an additional 6 months so that the Administration finishes analyzing these projects.
In addition, the wind sector recommends that schemes be adopted and the administrative regulations be reviewed, which allows to manage situations of mass accumulation of requests, giving visibility and certainty to the promoters about the viability and probabilities of success of their projects.
Wind in the world. Sustained growth in land wind and takeoff in marine wind
In 2021, 92 new GW has been installed in the world (71 GW terrestrial and 21 GW Marina, according to GWEC data). In this way, at the end of 2021, the installed wind power had reached 837,451 GW. 2021 has turned out to be a record year in terms of marine wind power installed worldwide with an increase of 59%. The total wind power has grown by 12% in 2021. Spain occupies the second wind power installed in Europe, after Germany. Worldwide, Spain remains the fifth country with the highest installed wind power (3%), after China (45%), United States (18%), Germany (9%) and India (5%).