An electric vehicle uses chemical energy stored in one or more rechargeable batteries. It uses electric engines that can be plugged into the mains to recharge the batteries while parked, providing that the electrical infrastructure allows it.
Vehicles that combine electric and internal combustion engines to propel are called hybrid vehicles.
Types of fully or partially electrically powered vehicles:
– Pure electric vehicle: It uses the chemical energy stored in one or more rechargeable batteries and can be plugged into the mains to recharge the batteries when parked. It uses electric engines. It can be equipped with regenerative braking systems that allow the battery to be charged at times of deceleration and braking:
– Hybrid Vehicles:
- “Traditional” hybrid vehicles: A classic hybrid vehicle uses both a traditional internal combustion engine and an electric engine. The electric engine uses the energy stored in batteries that are recharged by a generator driven by the combustion engine and by using a regenerative braking system.
- Plug-in hybrid vehicles: They act as “traditional” hybrids but with more batteries, allowing greater autonomy from the electrical system. The batteries can be charged either with the internal combustion engine or from a socket.
- Long-range hybrid vehicles: They have a 100% electric propulsion system (electric engine) powered by batteries that can be plugged when the car is parked. For use on long journeys, a small internal combustion engine that runs on petrol powers a generator that charges the batteries
– Hydrogen vehicles: A fuel cell fed by hydrogen generates electric current, which in turn, feeds an electric engine. The hydrogen is produced with water by an electrolyser.