Brazil ranks seventh in the world ranking of the World Wind Energy Council (GWEC). In the first half of 2020, 637 wind farms and 7,738 wind turbines were reached.
The National Energy Plan 2050 estimates that wind turbines in wind farms can reach between 110 GW and 195 GW in the coming decades.
Wind energy is the second source of the Brazilian electricity matrix, only behind hydroelectric, according to the National Electric Energy Agency (Aneel). The installed capacity is 16 GW, according to data published in June 2020 by the Brazilian Wind Energy Association (ABEEólica).
According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (Irena), if wind and photovoltaic systems replace 500 GW of coal, they would help reduce energy system costs by up to $ 23 billion a year. The global annual drop in carbon dioxide emissions would be approximately 1.8 gigatons (Gt), equivalent to 5% of total emissions in 2019.
To obtain energy, it is necessary to convert the moving kinetic energy of air masses into wind energy into rotational kinetic energy. Wind turbines, called wind turbines, generate electricity, especially if they are located in large parks.
Wind potential in Brazil
According to ABEEólica, the estimate is to have around 24.2 GW of installed capacity by 2024, considering the auctions already held and the contracts signed in the free market.
To expand this infrastructure, it is important to plan, choose the appropriate locations and perform various tests and reviews, in a project with several essential steps for its full operation.
According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), the wind sector invested R $ 13.6 billion in the country in 2019. The result was the generation of 355.9 TWh of energy, 15% more than the previous year and enough to supply . 28.8 million households per month in 12 states, serving 86.3 million people, considering three inhabitants per household.
Brazil is favored by the quality of the winds, which are stable, with adequate intensity and without sudden changes in speed or direction. In 2019, the capacity factor, since it measures wind productivity, was 42.7%. During the “harvest of the winds”, from June to the end of the year, there was an average month of 59%. The world average was 34%.
According to the Energy Research Company (EPE), the average residential consumption in Brazil, in 2019, was 162 kWh per month. It represented a growth of 12.6% compared to the previous year, when wind energy supplied 76.7 million people.
According to the technical note “Potential energy resources in Horizon 2050” prepared in 2018 by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the country needs to overcome technical, socioeconomic, environmental and infrastructure problems that can be obstacles to the full use of wind resources and the consequent opportunity to boost the national economy.
Wind power generation can be a source of income and an improvement in the lives of owners, by paying leases, which are taxable, to operate more than 7,000 wind turbines.
The use of wind energy occurs when it passes through the blades of a turbine designed to capture its kinetic energy, moving a shaft that connects the rotor and the generator and converts it into electricity.
To install a wind farm, several steps must be completed. The first part is the realization of economic and topographic feasibility studies, characterization of the wind in the region and regularization of land tenure.
Then, in addition to the basic design of the wind complex, risk analysis studies and Environmental Impact Studies (EIA) are required, resulting in the Environmental Impact Report (Rima). They detail how to minimize the potential negative impacts of the project.
After obtaining the necessary approvals, contractors and hired labor, from the installed construction site, begin the works by cleaning the area, moving earth when necessary and opening external and internal accesses. After the construction of the foundations and bases, the towers and wind turbines are assembled.
The wind turbine includes an anemometer, which measures the intensity and speed of the wind.