Endesa presents charger that enables electric vehicles to return power- Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)

The charger was showcased at the International Smart Car Congress organised by the IEEE this week in Madrid.

This point will be one of six installed in Malaga as part of the ZEM2ALL project spearheaded by Endesa in Spain to test the mass rollout of new e-mobility services in cities.

Endesa has today showcased Europe’s first quick charge point allowing dual directionality of the load from the grid to the vehicle and back. This is an important step in the development of smartgrids, which need tools to help optimise output and distribution and improve the supply and demand balance between producers and consumers.

The new charge point features V2G (vehicle to grid) and V2H (vehicle to home) technology allowing users to decide whether to consume the electricity stored in their electric vehicle, power their home or even return the surplus to the grid.

This innovative system was developed by Endesa in conjunction with the CITCEA centre of the UPC-BarcelonaTech and the Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC).

The results of live trials have been presented at the International Smart Car Congress organised by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), held this year for the first time in Spain. The charge point presented today will be installed in Malaga as part of the ZEM2ALL project in the last quarter of this year along with five bidirectional points, 16 quick charge points and 200 conventional charge points.

The ZEM2ALL (Zero Emissions Mobility to All) project, spearheaded by Endesa in Spain, is a four-year, Euro 60 million initiative which will enable the mass market rollout of new e-mobility services and benefits in cities.

The importance of storing and returning power to the grid

Electricity is one of the few energies that cannot be stored on a large scale. This means that much of the output produced by wind energy at night (which is when they are usually more active) is lost. However, all this power could be used to recharge EVs at night, making the system much more efficient. The possibility of vehicles being able to return power to the grid when necessary -the vehicles are parked most of the time- would help improve the balance between output and consumption.

Endesa and the electric vehicle

For Endesa, the electric vehicle is one of the most important ways of fighting climate change. It is for this reason that the Company has made e-mobility a strategic project, as stated in its 2008-2012 Sustainability Plan. As part of this Plan, the Company, which forms part of the Enel Group, has created a structure that has enabled it to develop technology and agreements that are already bearing their first fruit: in 2011, Endesa installed over 300 EV charge points in Spain and 20 in Latin America.

Endesa is active in e-mobility on four different fronts:

1. Pilot and demonstration projects to boost e-mobility.

In Spain, Endesa is fully involved in the government’s E-mobility Plan (MOVELE), which is managed and coordinated by the IDAE (Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving) and the Ministry of Industry, Energy, and Tourism. This plan involves the introduction in urban areas of 2,000 electric vehicles of varying categories and with different features and technology, and the installation of 546 recharging points in Madrid (280), Barcelona (191) and Seville (75).

Endesa is the only electricity company present in the three cities participating in MOVELE (Madrid, Barcelona, and Seville), which is a clear example of its commitment to developing the sustainable transport model.

Endesa is also involved in other projects aimed at the integration of the electric vehicle into smart grids, such as the Smartcity Málaga and Smartcity Barcelona, or DER-22@ and REVE initiatives. Smartcity´s project is a pioneering Spanish project, spearheaded by Endesa, for developing a new energy management model for cities which aims to achieve 20% energy savings, reduce CO2 emissions by 6,000 tonnes per year and increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this smartcities environment, Endesa is developing also V2G (vehicle to grid) technology with live testing.

The Company also developed a proprietary technological solution for the quick charging of electric vehicles through the CRAVE project in collaboration with CIRCE (Saragossa) and the V2M project, developed jointly with IREC (Catalonia). In 2011, this technology enabled the installation of the first quick charging stations in Spain and Latin America.

2. R&D Consortiums and Working Groups

Endesa is also involved in the Cenit “VERDE” project to promote research into technologies that enable EVs to be integrated into the power grid and introduced into the Spanish market. Endesa has been entrusted with various tasks relating to the smart management of the grid and study of the management of pure and hybrid EVs on SmartGrids, covering aspects ranging from the recharging point to control systems. The project has been approved by the Ministry of Industry, Energy, and Tourism, and is financed by the Cenit (Strategic National Consortiums in Technical Research) programme with a budget of almost Euro 40 million.

The Company is also involved in the SURTIDOR Project consortium developing an ultra-fast recharging system entailing the smart transfer of continuous current via direct contact with an optional backup energy storage system.

Elsewhere in Europe, Endesa is also active in other collaborative research projects, such as G4V, and demonstration projects, such as Elvire and Green eMotion:

G4V, Elvire, and Green eMotion are all projects included in the EC’s 7th Framework Programme which encompasses all its research initiatives and plays a crucial role in achieving objectives in terms of growth, competition and employment.

The “Green eMotion” consortium has a Euro 42 million budget over a four-year period and its main objective is to lay the foundations for the development of e-mobility through a series of demonstration projects across Europe. This enables the creation of a single framework that facilitates the large-scale introduction of electric vehicles, based on European standards, and the demonstration of related technologies in the transport as well as the energy and communications sectors.

The three-year ELVIRE project, meanwhile, has a budget of approximately Euro 10 million. The aim of this project is to develop the technology, solutions and services needed to enable the constant interaction between electric vehicle drivers, their energy suppliers and the smart grid. A consumer-oriented development is also proposed, with a services platform that optimises communication between users and their vehicles. Of particular note is Endesa’s contribution to the proposed solutions for the development of communication infrastructure with the energy supplier, charge control and system tariffs. Different possible scenarios are being studied, taking into account security and interoperability.

3. Standardisation and certification groups

Endesa participates in the EURELECTRIC (Brussels) electric vehicle work group, and is one of the founding and active members of the Berlin Group. At the end of 2009, it signed the European Electricity Sector’s declaration of support for the single EU standard, which was submitted to the Commission’s Vice-President in charge of transport policy. It has also formed part of the CENELEC European groups, contributing to the standardisation and approval process for all key and compatible recharging connection elements throughout the EU.

In the international arena, Endesa holds the European presidency of CHAdeMO, an international association whose objective is to make rapid charging for electric vehicles (that have been adopted by the electric vehicle brands with the biggest share of the global market) a reality, thus boosting the installation of this kind of rapid recharging infrastructure around the world. This system is able to recharge a car partially in 5 minutes, providing it with sufficient power for an additional 30-50 km. A complete recharge requires 20-30 minutes, depending on the type of vehicle and its battery level.

Endesa also plays an active role in the IEC groups for normal recharge, rapid recharge, and two-way recharge for EVs. It is also the AENOR representative in these groups.

4. Alliances and agreements with the main market agents

Endesa is working with all the players in this new market; and, as a result, has signed the following agreements:

• With Cepsa, it signed a collaboration agreement to jointly draw up a plan to develop, test and roll out a network of recharging points for pure electric and hybrid plug-in vehicles at Cepsa service stations. As a result of this alliance, the first "electrolinera" (service station with a rapid recharging facility for electric vehicles) in Spain was set up in Barcelona. • With Telefónica, an agreement was signed to develop a technological solution using phone booths as EV recharging points. The aim is to promote sustainable mobility by enabling users to recharge their vehicles on public thoroughfares. There are currently two booths in Madrid and one in Valencia offering this recharging facility to users. • It has entered into agreements with different car manufacturers and importers, such as General Motors, and sector-related associations. By signing these sorts of agreements, Endesa hopes to work side-by-side with car manufacturers to look for innovative solutions to both technological and commercial challenges, so as to boost e-mobility and facilitate its introduction into the market.

• In addition, in 2011 Endesa was responsible for important installations in the area of e-mobility, having, for example, been awarded the contract to supply and install the recharging infrastructure that AENA put out for tender in 2011. As a result, Endesa provided the electric recharging infrastructure required to power AENA’s fleet at the Madrid, Barcelona, Palma and Lanzarote airports, with a combined total of 53 recharging points.

• Collaboration agreements with public institutions, such as the regional government of Extremadura and the Malaga, Palma de Mallorca and Almeria City Councils, and also the Madrid, Barcelona and Seville city councils, via the MOVELE Plan.

5. The marketing of recharging infrastructure

Endesa has included an added-value proposal into its range of products and customer services in the form of e-mobility, which is segmented according to the type of customer: residential or business.

The Company offers an integrated turnkey solution that includes recharging infrastructure and installation, with personalised technical advice as well as zero-interest financing facilities for domestic customers.

Endesa’s product catalogue contains a wide range of equipment, thereby offering each customer the recharging point that best meets their needs, whether these be conventional-recharging points or rapid-recharging points. A team of technicians visits each customer installation to assess the electricity system and to prepare a personalised estimate.

As part of its aim to promote and disseminate information on e-mobility, Endesa has developed specialised customer service channels to provide information to all potential users and anyone else interested in the subject. As a result, as well as its telephone assistance service on e-mobility, it has also developed a website with much information on the subject:www.endesavehiculoelectrico.com

On the website, users are able to see exactly what Endesa is doing in the market, as well as its product catalogue, the financial and environmental benefits of e-mobility, and the Government subsidies available, among other things.

6. Replacement plan for Endesa’s fleet

To reduce CO2 emissions and the fuel consumption on its short-range vehicles, Endesa is planning to replace 30% of its short-range fleet with electric vehicles. The Company currently has around 20 pure electric vehicles, which have been used to assess how this technology can be adapted to the needs of its fleet.

It has initially focused on the short-range vehicle segment because these vehicles meet the same security and equipment requirements as its current combustion vehicles. The EVs that already form part of the Endesa fleet are used to transport people and tools to carry out small repairs. Nevertheless, and given the constantly changing nature of this technology, Endesa is studying the advances being made and the market so that it may soon replace its entire fleet with electric vehicles.

Endesa’s interest in sustainable mobility has been one of its focal points for the last few years, and the Company has been a pioneer and leading player in terms of incorporating hybrid vehicles across the whole of its sales fleet (at one stage it had the biggest fleet of hybrid vehicles in Europe, with more than 300 in 2010, and it is still one of the biggest hybrid fleets today).

By José Santamarta, www.evwind.com