"Lead acid batteries are traditionally the energy storage device used for most photovoltaic systems," said Wu. "However, as an energy storage device, lithium batteries, especially the LiFePO4 batteries we used, have more favourable characteristics."
Data was collected by connecting a lithium iron phosphate battery to a photovoltaic system attached to one of the university’s buildings, using a specifically designed battery management system supplied by REAPsystems.
Wu explained: "Our research showed that the lithium battery has an energy efficiency of 95% whereas the lead-acid batteries commonly used today only have around 80%. The weight of the lithium batteries is lower and they have a longer life span than the lead-acid batteries reaching up to 1,600 charge/discharge cycles, meaning they would need to be replaced less frequently."
Although the battery will require further testing before being put into commercial photovoltaic systems, the research shows that the LiFePO4 battery has the potential to improve the efficiency of solar power systems and help to reduce the costs of both their installation and upkeep.
Dr Dennis Doerffel, founder of REAPsystems and former researcher at the University of Southampton, said: "For all kinds of energy source (renewable or non-renewable), the energy storage device – such as a battery – plays an important role in determining the energy utilisation.
"Compared with traditional lead acid batteries, LiFePO4 batteries are more efficient, have a longer lifetime, are lighter and cost less per unit. We can see the potential of this battery being used widely in photovoltaic application, and other renewable energy systems."
Laura Hopperton, www.reapsystems.co.uk/