Analyzing Solar Energy Technologies

The harnessing of solar energy is not new in fact, development of solar energy dates back more than 100 years, to the middle of the industrial revolution. Solar energy is pollution-free, an important benefit when the cost of removing pollutants from the environment is considered. For example, a typical SWH system will, over its lifetime, displace 10.5 tons of CO2 if replacing a natural gas system, or 71.5 tons if replacing an electric system.

Aruvians Rsearch analyzes all the emerging technologies in its research report Analyzing Solar Power Technologies. This vast report starts with the basics of photovoltaics and solar energy, the various uses of solar power, and then moves on to analyze the Photovoltaic Market around the world.

The report looks at the following solar power technologies:

Nanotechnology and Photovoltaics
Thin Film Solar Cells
Hybrid Solar Cells
Organic Photovoltaics
Quantum Dot Solar Cells
Plastic Solar Cells
Tandem Solar Cells
Plasmonic Solar Cells
Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells
String Ribbon Solar Cells
Polymer Solar Cells
Miniature Solar Cells

Aruvian’s Rsearchs report on Solar Power Technologies initiates with a strong theoretical understanding of each of the solar cell technology system and their subsequent propagation into photovoltaic systems including their applications.

Aruvians Rsearchs report also devotes an entire in-depth section to each of the technical aspects of each of the technologies listed above, including their history as well as mechanism, general operation principles and architecture designs that have opened up new markets for solar power systems. These are further explained in the efficient design choices of various configurations and new ideas contributed in this field.

The report covers 126 major players in the industry, and also undertakes a PEST Framework Analysis of the Global Solar PV Industry. Technologies associated with solar power, implementation and applications of PV Systems, an analysis of the PV Industry Value Chain, and a lot more statistical and theoretical data is included in this report.

Executive Summary

Section 1: Introduction to Solar Power & Photovoltaics

A. Understanding Solar Power
A.1 What is Solar Power?
A.2 Pros & Cons of Solar Power
A.3 Ready Availability of Solar Power

B. Technologies Associated with Solar Power
B.1 Parabolic Trough
B.2 Central Receiver or Solar Tower
B.3 Parabolic Dish
B.4 Direct & Indirect Technology
B.5 Concentrating & Non-Concentrating Technology
B.6 Passive & Active Technology

C. Introduction to Solar Photovoltaics
C.1 Overview
C.2 Photovoltaic Systems
C.3 Looking at the Balance of System (BOS)
C.4 Applications of Solar Cells
C.5 Types of Solar Cells

D. Global Market Overview of Solar PV Cells
D.1 Market Profile
D.2 Market Size
D.3 Growth Patterns of the Market
D.4 Market Statistics Production Side
D.5 Commercialization Potential & Market Development
D.6 Future of the Market

E. Worldwide Solar Photovoltaic Installation
E.1 Market Profile & Statistics
E.2 Research & Development

F. Analyzing Production of PV Cell & Module

G. Analyzing the PV Industry Value Chain
G.1 Introduction
G.2 Analysis of the Feedstock Component
G.2.1 Role of Polysilicon
G.2.2 Role of Thin Film Technology
G.2.3 Ingots & Wafers Production
G.3 Analysis of Solar Cells & Module Production
G.4 Attaining Balance of System

Section 2: Nanotechnology and Photovoltaics

A. Photovoltaics and Nanotechnology
A.1 Nanotechnology and Sustainable Energy
A.2 Nanotechnology for Energy Sources
A.2.1 Development of Primary Energy Sources
A.3 Nanotech Uses in the Energy Sector Snapshot
A.3.1 Chemical
A.3.2 Mechanical
A.3.3 Optical
A.3.4 Electronic
A.3.5 Thermal

B. Global Scenario of Nanotechnologies in Energy
B.1 Photovoltaics
B.2 Solar Thermal Energy
B.3 Fuel Cells
B.4 Photoelectric and Photovoltaic Devices

C. Solar Cells & Nanotech
C.1 Introduction
C.2 Benefit to Solar Cells from Nanoparticles
C.2.1 Polymer Cells
C.2.2 Quantum Dots
C.2.3 Quantum Wells
C.2.4 Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes
C.3 Nanotech for Solar Power is Here
C.4 Working of Traditional Solar Cells & Role of Nanotechnology
C.5 Some Examples of Use of Inexpensive Solar Cells
C.5.1 Usage in Environment
C.5.2 Usage in Military
C.5.3 Usage in Rural Areas
C.5.4 Usage in Electronics Industry
C.6 Working of Nanotech Solar Cells
C.7 Cost and Efficiency
C.8 Nanotech Use in Solar Cells
C.9 Thin-Layer Solar Cells
C.10 Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Dye Solar Cells
C.11 Fullerene Derivates as Electron Acceptors in Polymer Solar Cells
C.12 Nanolayers in Stack Cells
C.13 Quantum Dots for Solar Cells
C.14 Nanostructured Antireflection Layers
C.15 New Materials for Photovoltaics

D. Global Scenario and R&D of Nanotech in Solar Cells

E. Present Market Economics of Nanotech & Future Prospects

Section 3: Thin Film Solar Cells

A. Analyzing Thin Film Solar Cells
A.1 Overview
A.2 Categories of Thin Film Solar Cells
A.2.1 Amorphous Silicon
A.2.2 Cadmium Telluride
A.2.3 Copper Indium Gallium Selenide
A.2.4 Dye-sensitized Solar Cell
A.2.5 Organic Solar Cell
A.2.6 Thin-film Silicon
A.3 Structure of the Thin Film Solar Cell
A.4 Efficiency and Cost of Thin Film Solar Cells
A.5 Production of Thin Film Solar Cells
A.6 Looking at Characterization Techniques and Electrical Qualities of Thin Film Solar Cells

B. Role of P3HT
B.1 Overview
B.2 Electrical Properties and Organization of Thin Film Solar Cells
B.3 Optical Properties and HOMO, LUMO Levels in P3HT
B.4 Role of Silicon & P3HT Heterojunction in Photovoltaics
B.4.1 Junctions with Semiconductors
B.4.2 Band Diagrams Based on Silicon and P3HT

C. Analysis of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
C.1 Overview
C.2 Looking at Thin Film Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
C.2.1 Formation of Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells and Role of Low Temperature
C.2.2 Carrier Transport Process in Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells
C.2.3 Fabrication Rate for Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells
C.2.4 Light Trapping Quality of Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells
C.3 Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells Applications in Hybrid Solar Cells
C.3.1 Looking at Silicon Hybrid Solar Cells
C.3.2 Developing Techniques for Microcrystalline Silicon Deposits on Large Area Substrates
C.4 Brief Look at Thin Film Silicon Triple Junction Solar Cells
C.5 Summing Up

D. Analysis of CIGS/CIS-based Thin Film Solar Cells
D.1 Overview of CIGS Photovoltaic Cells
D.2 Structure of a CIGS Thin Film Solar Cell
D.3 Material Characteristics of CIGS Solar Cells
D.4 A Look at the Phase Diagram
D.5 Defects and Impurities in CIGS Solar Cells
D.6 Techniques for Manufacturing Thin Film Solar Cells
D.6.1 Coevaporation
D.6.2 Sequential Technique
D.7 CIGS Fabrication Technologies
D.7.1 Cell Processing
D.7.2 Module Processing
D.8 Summing Up

E. Analysis of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
E.1 Overview
E.2 Comparing Semiconductor Solar Cells vs. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
E.3 Fabrication Process
E.4 How the Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Operates
E.5 Efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
E.6 Degradation in UV Radiation
E.7 Pros and Cons

F. Nanotechnology-enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells

Section 4: Hybrid Solar Cells

A. Analysis of Hybrid Solar Cells
A.1 What are Hybrid Solar Cells?
A.2 How Hybrid Solar Cells Function
A.3 Efficiency Issues
A.3.1 Problem of Bandgap
A.3.2 Problem of Interfaces
A.3.3 Problem of Charge Transport
A.3.4 Improvements in the Efficiency of Hybrid Solar Cells

B. Types of Hybrid Solar Cells
B.1 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)
B.2 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
B.3 Nanostructured InorganicSmall Molecules
B.4 PolymerNanoparticle Composite

C. Hybrid Solar Cells and the Bulk Heterojunction Concept

D. Trends in the Hybrid Solar Cells Market: Current & Future

Section 5: Organic Photovoltaics

A. Analyzing Organic Photovoltaics
A.1 Overview
A.2 History of Organic PV Cells
A.2.1 Single Layer OPV Cell
A.2.2 Bilayer OPV Cells
A.2.3 Bulk Heterojunction OPV Cells
A.3 Looking at Organic Photovoltaic Materials
A.4 Development of New Materials for Organic PV
A.5 General Operation and Construction
A.6 Mechanism of Organic PV Cells
A.7 General Working Principle
A.8 Device Physics of Organic Blend PV Cells
A.9 Junction Types for Organic PV Cells
A.9.1 Dispersed Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells
A.9.2 Multilayer Organic Photovoltaic Cells
A.9.3 Single Layer Organic Photovoltaic Cell
A.10 Impact of Film Morphology
A.11 Dealing with Controlled Growth Heterojunction
A.12 Progress in Growth Techniques
A.13 Vacuum Thermal Evaporation
A.14 Organic Vapor Phase Deposition
A.15 Efficiency Developments in Organic PV Cells
A.16 Looking at the Innovative Architecture of Organic PV Cells
A.17 Markets for Organic PV
A.18 Future Challenges

B. Organic Cell Architectures and Review
B.1 Overview
B.2 Single Layer Devices
B.3 Donor-Acceptor Bilayer Devices
B.4 Donor-Acceptor Blend Devices

C. Organic PV Cells versus Traditional Solar Cells

D. Design and Choice of Efficient Donor and Acceptor Molecules
D.1 Overview
D.2 Donor Molecules
D.3 Acceptor Molecules
D.4 New Ideas
D.5 Present-day Challenges

E. Factors Impacting the Production of Organic PV Cells
E.1 Overview
E.2 Efficiency Factor
E.3 Lifetime Period
E.4 Cost Factor
E.5 Summing Up

F. Challenges Facing Organic PV Cells
F.1 Overview
F.2 Thin Film Heterojunctions
F.3 Dye Sensitized or Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells

G. Improving Organic PV Cell Performance
G.1 Overview
G.2 Bandgap Tuning of Semiconducting Organics and Tandem Cells
G.3 Nanostructured PV Cell
G.4 High Mobility Semiconducting Organics

H. Analysis of Processing Techniques for Organic PV Cells
H.1 Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL)
H.2 Spin Casting
H.3 Vacuum Evaporation

I. Analyzing Antenna Organic PV Cells
I.1 Organic Materials
I.2 Looking at the Antenna Architecture
I.3 Looking at Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP)
I.4 Excitation Efficiency of Organic Solar Cell SPP
I.5 Resultant Energy Transfer from Antenna Excitons
I.6 Future of Antenna Photovoltaics

J. Analyzing Organic Solar Concentrators
J.1 Looking at Solar Concentrators
J.2 Concept of Fluorescent Concentrators
J.3 Restrictions on Optical Concentration
J.3.1 Looking at Inelastic Processes
J.3.2 Looking at Elastic Processes
J.4 Looking at Organic Solar Concentrators
J.5 Thermal Performance of Organic Solar Concentrators

K. Making Organic PV Cells more Efficient with Ordered Nanostructures
K.1 Overview
K.2 History
K.3 Nanosphere Lithography Technique
K.4 Block Copolymer Lithography Technique
K.5 Summing Up

L. Increasing the Longevity of Organic PV Cells with Exciton Blocking Layers (EBLs)
L.1 Overview
L.2 Looking at Single Films
L.3 Looking at PV Cells
L.4 Analyzing Results of Single Cells versus PV Cells
L.4.1 Single Films
L.4.2 PV Cells
L.5 Summing Up

Section 6: Quantum Dot Solar Cells

A. Looking at Nanocrystal/Quantum Dot Solar Cells

B. How the Quantum Dot Achieves Higher Efficiency

C. How the Manufacturing Process of Quantum Dots is Evolved for Solar Cells

D. Increasing the Efficiency of Inorganic Solar Cells with Quantum Structures
D.1 Overview
D.2 Superlattice and Multiple Quantum Well Systems
D.3 Hot Carriers and Carrier Multiplication System
D.4 Development of Protocrystalline Silicon Multilayer
D.5 Development of Nanorod-shape Heterojunction

E. Analysis of Quantum Structured Solar Cells
E.1 Overview
E.2 Looking at Multiple – Exciton Generation Solar Cells
E.3 Looking at Intermediate – Band Solar Cells
E.4 Looking at ElectronHole Pair Multiplication in Quantum Dots
E.5 Understanding the Interaction of Hot Carriers in Bulk Semiconductors
E.6 Understanding Superlattices and Quantum Wells
E.7 Determining Hot Electron Cooling Times
E.8 Quantum Dots and Dynamics of Hot Excitons
E.9 A Brief Look at the Phonon Bottleneck Phenomenon
E.10 Formation of Multiple ElectronHole Pairs in Quantum Dots
E.11 Configurations of Quantum Dot Solar Cells
E.11.1 Photoelectrodes and Quantum Dot 3-D Array
E.11.2 Quantum Dots and Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cells
E.11.3 Quantum Dots and Organic Semiconductor Polymers
E.12 Summing Up

F. Analyzing Quantum Dot Intermediate Band Solar Cells
F.1 Overview
F.2 How to Design the Quantum Dot
F.3 Coupling of Quantum Dot

G. Analysis of Quantum Dot Solar Concentrators
G.1 Overview
G.2 What is the Quantum Dot Concentrator?
G.3 Modeling of the Concentrator
G.4 Summing Up

Section 7: Plastic Solar Cells

A. Analysis of Plastic Solar Cells
A.1 History of Plastic Solar Cells
A.2 Architecture of How Plastic Solar Cells
A.3 Market Overview

A.4 Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness
A.5 Plastic Solar Cell Applications

B. Future of Plastic Solar Cells

Section 8: Tandem Solar Cells

A. Tandem Solar Cells for Increased Efficiency
A.1 Overview

B. Design Considerations

C. Fabrication of Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon

D. Facing the Challenge for High Conversion Efficiency

Section 9: Plasmonic Solar Cells

A. Analysis of Plasmonic Solar Cells
A.1 What are Plasmonic Solar Cells?
A.2 Development of Plasmonic Solar Cells
A.3 Optical Properties
A.4 Role of Plasmonics in Photovoltaics
A.5 Understanding the Design of Plasmonic Solar Cells
A.5.1 Depositing of Metal Nanoparticles
A.5.2 Depositing Layer of Metal
A.6 How a Plasmonic Solar Cell Works
A.6.1 Scattering and Deposition of Metal Nanoparticles
A.6.2 Surface Plasmons and Metal Film
A.7 Materials Used in Plasmonic Solar Cells

B. Looking at Applications of Plasmonic Solar Cells
B.1 Overview
B.2 Plasmonic Solar Cells in Space Exploration
B.3 Plasmonic Solar Cells Help in Rural Electrification
B.4 Using Plasmonic Solar Cells for Power Stations
B.5 Plasmonic Solar Cells and Consumer Electronics

C. Latest Research in Plasmonic Solar Cells

D. New Plasmonic Solar Cell Designs

E. Application in Large-Area PV Module Production

F. Future Perspective: Plasmonic Solar Cells

Section 10: Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells

A. What are Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells
A.1 Overview
A.2 Types of Photoelectrochemical Cell
A.2.1 Photogeneration Cell
A.2.2 Graetzel Cell
A.3 Major Developments

Section 11: String Ribbon Solar Cells

A. What are String Ribbon Solar Cells?
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Enhancing the Efficiency of Solar Cells with String Ribbon
A.3 String Ribbon Technology

Section 12: Polymer Solar Cells

A. What are Polymer Solar Cells?
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Physical Characteristics
A.3 Solar Cell Configuration
A.4 Market Overview
A.5 Conclusion

Section 13: Miniature Solar Cells

A. What are Miniature Solar Cells?
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Miniature Solar Cell Architecture
A.3 Relation between Miniature Silicon Solar Cells & Tandem Cells
A.4 Cell Configuration
A.5 Manufacturing Process
A.6 Summing Up

Section 14: Industry Players

A. Leading Industry Contributors
A.1 Advent Solar
A.3 Akeena Solar, Inc
A.4 Aleo Solar
A.5 Amonix Incorporated
A.6 Antec Solar Energy AG
A.7 ArcticSolar AB
A.8 Asahi
A.9 AVA Solar/Abound Solar
A.10 Ascent Solar
A.11 ASE Americas Inc
A.12 Asia Silicon Co., Qinghai
A.13 AstroPower Inc
A.15 Atlantis Energy Inc
A.16 Ausra
A.18 Bangkok Solar
A.19 Baodiang Tianwei Yingli Green Energy Solar Company
A.20 Big Sun Energy
A.21 BP Solar International
A.22 Bloo Solar
A.23 BSR Solar Technologies
A.24 Calyxo GMBH
A.25 Cambridge Display Technology
A.26 Canadian Solar
A.27 Canon
A.28 Central Electronics Ltd.
A.29 Canrom Photovoltaics
A.30 China Solar Energy Holdings
A.31 China Sunergy
A.32 China Technology Development Group Corporation
A.33 China Xianjiang SunOasis Ltd.
A.34 Citizenre Corporation
A.35 Conergy AG
A.36 Coolearth Solar
A.37 CSG Solar
A.38 Cyrium Technologies
A.39 DayStar Technologies
A.40 Deutsche Solar AG
A.41 Dupont
A.42 Ebara Solar
A.43 Elkem
A.44 ENFRA System SRL
A.45 Entech Inc
A.46 EPV Solar
A.47 Ersol
A.48 Ertex Solar
A.49 Etimex Solar
A.50 E-TON Solar Tech
A.51 Evergreen Solar, Inc
A.52 Ever-Q
A.53 Evident Technologies
A.54 First Solar
A.55 Free Energy Europe S.A.
A.56 Global Solar Energy
A.57 Green Energy Technology
A.58 GT Solar
A.59 Heliodomi SA
A.60 HelioGrid
A.61 Helios Technology SRL
A.62 HelioVolt
A.63 Honda Soltec
A.64 ICP Solar Technologies
A.65 Innovalight
A.66 International Solar Electric Technology
A.67 Inventux Technologies AG
A.69 Isofoton