What Will the Car of the Future Look Like?

In advance of the 2009 edition of the IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt (Germany), Delphi Corporation (PINKSHEETS: DPHIQ), a leading global automotive supplier highlights ‘green’ technologies that will equip the car of the future. To help address global fuel conservation efforts and increasing concerns about global warming, car makers are accelerating the introduction of technologies that reduce fuel consumption and cut emissions of all pollutants. By leveraging its rich heritage and extensive technical knowledge, Delphi provides robust solutions to complex challenges, helping car makers develop vehicles that offer enhanced performance and reduced emissions. For further information on any of the technologies mentioned below, interviews with Delphi subject matter experts can be scheduled upon request.

* Power Electronics
Delphi designed and manufactured the major electronic and electrical components of the first modern electric vehicle in the early ’90s. The company remains committed to developing innovative hybrid electric vehicle technologies that will increase fuel economy, reduce emissions and help make hybrid vehicles an appealing choice for consumers. Delphi inverters, DC/DC converters, controllers, energy storage systems and stop/start systems are helping to make HEVs a more popular choice by providing peak performance, resolving packaging challenges and lowering cost. Delphi innovation will soon include integrated Power Electronics and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) energy storage systems to be offered to vehicle manufacturers.

Delphi power electronics are currently on the road in the Ford Fusion, Ford Escape, GM Tahoe and Cadillac Escalade. With the growth in hybrid vehicle popularity, these products will appear on more vehicles globally.

* Integrated Inverter, DC/DC Converter, Controller System
Today’s hybrid and electric vehicles require an inverter to manage power requirements for propulsion, a controller to intelligently control multiple functions, and a DC/DC Converter to manage voltage between the battery pack and the vehicle accessory systems. The integration of these products into a single unit coupled with Delphi’s patented power silicon ICs will result in the same high performance and high reliability as the individual components while lowering cost and reducing mass.

Expected on the roads: Delphi’s integrated power electronics systems are expected on the road as early as 2010.

* Lithium-ion Energy Storage Systems
Delphi’s hybrid energy storage systems are designed to meet specific customer requirements for energy and performance. The systems monitor and control high-voltage contactors within the bussed electrical center to maintain occupant safety, as well as calculate battery state-of-charge (SOC) and available power to the vehicle’s energy system controller. These systems also maintain the health of the battery cells by monitoring and managing voltage, current and temperature while improving their performance and life. Currently, nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery packs pervade the market, but Li-ion batteries will soon displace them as they reach cost parity. Li-ion batteries have higher energy density, weigh less and can be charged/discharged more often without the degradation seen in other rechargeables. They also have a lower self-discharge rate so they retain their charge longer.

NiMH energy storage systems are currently available on the Ford Fusion and Ford Escape. Li-ion systems will be introduced in the market as early as 2010.

* Revolutionary Direct Acting Diesel Fuel Injection System
The Direct Acting Common Rail (CR) from Delphi represents a radical break-through in diesel injection technology as, for the first time, the injector needle is directly activated by the piezo stack, removing the hydraulic circuit and its associated lag and energy consumption. This change enables vehicle manufacturers to comply with future emission legislations while providing more power and uncompromised fuel economy.

This technology is currently available and was launched as a world premiere on the Mercedes C-Class in 2008.

* Spray-Stratified Gasoline Direct Injection with Multec 20 injector
The new spray-stratified gasoline direct injection (GDi) system from Delphi reduces CO2 emissions at significantly lower costs than traditional systems. With solenoid technology that delivers outstanding spray performance, Delphi’s spray stratified GDi system improves fuel economy while reducing engine noise and harmful emissions. Spray stratified GDi, also known as "lean" burn GDi, uses less fuel by creating a stratified charge with a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio near the spark plug with no fuel outside the mixture plume in the remainder of the chamber. The Multec 20 injector delivers the performance needed for premium engines at a significantly lower cost than conventional piezo technology. This technology is helping manufacturers meet more stringent future CO2 standards by improving engine efficiency and is ethanol compatible while helping reduce engine noise.

Expected on the roads: In development for production in 2012.

* Multec Homogeneous GDi Fuel Injector
with its multi-hole spray generator enables optimum charge distribution for more efficient combustion. The system delivers more precise fuel injection for a "cleaner" engine and it’s an enabler for boosting and downsizing — a key strategy for reducing fuel consumption and helping OEMs meet future standards.

Expected on the roads: Homogeneous GDi is in development for production in 2010.

* High efficiency fuel pumps
are designed to require a lower electrical load which can help reduce CO2 emissions. Delphi’s new brushless fuel pump technology features a unique pump motor architecture with lower internal resistance to help reduce CO2 emissions even more.

Delphi’s high efficiency fuel pumps are currently in production, with brushless technology in development for production in 2012.

* Automotive ammonia sensor
New technology allows closed loop control of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, reducing NOx. and helping diesel owners save money. Delphi has developed the world’s first automotive ammonia sensor. By directly measuring tailpipe ammonia, the sensor allows the injection of urea (an ammonia rich compound required by the SCR system) to be optimized and ammonia emissions reduced.

Control of urea injection is expected to become a rapidly increasing priority as SCR levels increase to meet new emissions regulations in both light and heavy duty diesel markets.

* Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit
is a high-efficiency electrochemical generator that provides up to 5 kW of reliable, environmentally friendly electrical power for a wide range of transportation and stationary uses. This ultra-clean—near zero emissions—power generation source operates independent of the main engine. In addition to its high fuel-efficiency, it also offers fuel flexibility and low noise.

Expected on the roads: This SOFC Power Unit is in development for production in 2012.

* Advanced electrical/electronic architecture
Delphi is currently working on electrical/electronic architecture technology to reduce bundle sizes, lower mass, and make use of advanced automation processes to enable smaller gage cables. Advanced products such as aluminum cable, Ultra-Thin-Wall Halogen-Free Cable, high conductivity alloys and miniaturized components such as waferized connectors all help automakers deliver more functionality without requiring more space. By reducing mass, many of these advancements also help reduce CO2 emissions and improve fuel economy and will continue to do so long into the future.

Expected on the roads: Many of the technologies are available today. Advanced electrical/electronic architecture systems are expected on future vehicles in the coming years. Aluminium cable is expected to be introduced early in the next decade. Ultra-Thin-Wall Halogen Free Cable is already on the roads.

* Electrical/electronic architecture for hybrid vehicles
Hybrid vehicles have rigorous power requirements and demand robust component performance in a challenging environment. Understanding the needs and requirements of these systems allows Delphi to propose the right combination of standard components and customized architectures for each hybrid application. A number of complex factors in the electrical system must be addressed and engineered for reliability and peak performance to keep drivers safe in high-power environments.

As vehicles of the future begin to rely more on hybrid solutions, Delphi is prepared to support automakers with the proliferation of this technology.

* Halogen-free ultra-thin-wall cable
A new, highly-durable automotive cable with significantly lighter and thinner insulation than traditional cable, the Halogen-Free Cable, a recyclable and environmentally-friendly product, is free of dangerous halogens and offers excellent pinch resistance, nearly double that of traditional cable, and outstanding abrasion resistance. The use of this advanced cable also leads to size and weight reductions in the cable that, in turn, results in lower fuel consumption and reduced CO2 emissions.

Expected on the roads: After making its debut on the 2007 Toyota Tundra, Delphi Halogen-Free Ultra-Thin-Wall Cable is now being produced for multiple vehicles from three major automakers. It is an environmentally responsible alternative to conventional cable such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE).

* Battery Monitoring Device
As automakers and drivers heighten their focus on fuel economy and concern for the environment, Delphi expects to experience a growing demand for its Battery Monitoring Device, an electric innovation that calculates the battery state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC) and alerts drivers to the need to replace or charge the battery. The device helps ensure optimal battery performance, making more electronic features possible while ensuring sufficient power for starting the engine. When integrated into a vehicle as part of active energy management system, the Delphi Battery Monitoring Device can also help improve fuel efficiency and extend battery life.

Expected on the roads: 2011

* Use of phase change materials (PCMs) to cool or warm hybrid cars
Phase change materials (PCMs) are ideal for use in hybrid vehicles or vehicles with start-stop capability. Delphi has developed a unique solution that integrates PCM into current heat-exchanger technology, using existing packaging space. This "Thermal Storage" system with PCM enables a hybrid vehicle to store excess thermal energy while the engine is running and then releases this energy during engine off idle stops to maintain comfort in the car. Use of PCMs allow hybrid vehicles to turn the engine off while the vehicle is stopped, greatly improving fuel economy, without sacrificing occupant comfort. Similar technology is used in warehouses where PCM material is charged in the evening (when the electric rate is low) and then used to cool the interior of a building during the day (when the electric rate is high). Thermal Storage systems with PCM allow hybrid vehicles to be more efficient and keep vehicle comfort more consistent.

Expected on the roads: PCM thermal storage may be available starting in 2012.

* Internal Heat Exchanger
Delphi’s counter-flow, tube-in-tube heat exchanger transfers the refrigerant from the evaporator outlet back over the refrigerant headed to the evaporator. The refrigerant then returns to the compressor. The system efficiency is increased by providing supercooled liquid to the evaporator. Concurrently, the compressor’s efficiency is increased by the consistent supply of superheated refrigerant and by maintaining the evaporator close to saturation. This is important to the car of the future as it enables the increased capacity required for the new alternative refrigerant— R-1234yf — along with the simultaneously increased energy efficiency.

Expected on the road: Delphi’s Internal heat exchanger technology will help improve energy efficiency starting in 2011.

* Liquid Cooled Charge Air Cooler (LCCAC)
Delphi is developing a LCCAC portfolio to add to its industry-leading Air-To-Air Charge Air Cooler portfolio. After the air compression process that occurs in a turbo- or super-charged engine, cooling the engine intake air with a coolant-to-air heat exchanger offers many benefits over conventional air-to-air charge air coolers. The flexibility of Delphi’s LCCAC’s designs allows the coolers to be incorporated into the ducting between the forced induction device and the engine or integrated into the intake manifold, minimizing the under-hood packaging impact and the air-pressure losses through the cooler. LCCAC’s eliminate the large diameter elastomeric tubing used to route the charge air to the air-to-air charge cooler and the large diameter connectors that can lead to warranty problems. Engine response time during acceleration is improved because of the smaller volume of air between the induction device and engine and the high-transient thermal capacity of the liquid cooled system. This higher thermal capacity also helps to limit NOx peaks during transient driving conditions by maintaining cooler inlet air temperatures. For cold starts, coolant flow can be limited to increase engine warm-up rate and reduce the time for the catalytic converter to reach lightoff temperatures. During partial load conditions, coolant flow can also be limited to reduce air density allowing a greater opening of the throttle valve, which helps to reduce engine-pumping losses. Additionally, Delphi’s wide array of heat exchangers can be modified to fit any size engine allowing for greater automaker flexibility and packaging.

Expected on the roads: Delphi’s innovative LCCAC is expected on the roads in 2011.

Innovation for the Real World
Delphi brings the power of innovation to a wide range of products and services that add value for car makers and car drivers alike. From vehicle components and systems to medical devices and beyond, Delphi delivers real-world innovations that help make products smarter, safer, more powerful, and much more valuable.