According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), in 2020, consumption of renewable energy in the US grew for the fifth year in a row, reaching a record high of 11.6 quadrillion Btu, or 12% of total US energy consumption. Renewable energy was the only source of US energy consumption that increased in 2020 from 2019; fossil fuel and nuclear consumption declined. The EIA’s US renewable energy consumption by source and sector chart shows how much renewable energy by source each sector consumes.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review. Click for full US renewable energy chart.p>The EIA converts sources of energy to common units of heat, called Btu, to compare different types of energy that are usually measured in units that are not directly comparable, such as gallons of biofuels compared with kilowatt-hours of wind energy.
It uses a fossil fuel equivalence to calculate primary energy consumption of non-combustible renewables (wind, hydro, solar, and geothermal), which are not burned to generate electricity and therefore do not have an inherent Btu conversion rate. In this approach, it converts the non-combustible renewables from kilowatt-hours to Btu using the annual weighted-average Btu conversion rate for all fossil fuels burned to generate electricity in the US during that year to estimate the amount of fossil energy replaced by these renewable sources.It uses the fossil fuel equivalency approach to report non-combustible renewables’ contribution to total primary energy, in part, because the resulting shares of primary energy are closer to the shares of generated electricity. This calculation also represents the energy that would have been consumed if the electricity from renewable sources had instead been generated by a mix of fossil fuels.
Wind energy, or electricity generated by wind-powered turbines, is almost exclusively consumed in the electric power sector. Wind energy accounted for approximately 26% of US renewable energy consumption in 2020. Wind surpassed hydroelectricity in 2019 to become the single most-consumed source of renewable energy on an annual basis. In 2020, US wind energy consumption grew 14% from 2019.
Hydroelectric power, or electricity generated by water-powered turbines, is almost exclusively consumed in the electric power sector. It accounted for approximately 22% of US renewable energy consumption in 2020. US hydropower consumption has remained relatively flat since the 1970s, but it fluctuates with seasonal rainfall and drought conditions.
Wood and waste energy, including wood, wood pellets, and biomass waste from landfills, accounted for approximately 22% of US renewable energy consumption in 2020. Industrial, commercial, and electric power facilities use wood and waste as a fuel to generate electricity, produce heat, and manufacture goods.
Biofuels, including fuel ethanol, biodiesel, and other renewable fuels, accounted for approximately17% of US renewable energy consumption in 2020. US biofuel consumption fell 11% from 2019 as overall transportation sector energy use declined in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Solar energy accounted for approximately 11% of US renewable energy consumption in 2020. Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells, including rooftop panels, and solar thermal power plants use sunlight to generate electricity. Some residential and commercial buildings use solar heating systems to heat water and the building. Overall, 2020 US solar consumption increased 22% from 2019.